The Coptic Orthodox Faith
The Coptic Orthodox Church is more than nineteen centuries old, and as such, is one of the oldest apostolic churches in the world and the largest Christian denomination in Africa and the Middle East. It is based on the teachings of the apostle Mark, who brought Christianity to Egypt during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero in the first century A.D, a couple of decades after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ. Saint Mark was one of the four evangelists who wrote the gospels in the New Testament of the Bible. Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of the Apostle Mark’s arrival in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Coptic Orthodox Church
The Coptic Orthodox Church Today…
Statement of Faith - The Nicene Creed
Definition of a Church Sacrament
The Church Sacrament is an invisible grace we receive by practicing a visible rite, and a visible sign or substance performed by a priest.
- In the Baptism the substance is water by which we receive the second birth from Water and Spirit.
- In the Confirmation the substance is the oil of Myron, by which the Holy Spirit dwells in us.
- The sign of the Sacrament of Confession is the confessing person, who accepts the prayer of absolution at the end of Confession to gain forgiveness of sins.
- The substance of the Sacrament of Communion is the bread and wine, by which we eat the Holy Body and Precious Blood of Emmanuel our God.
- The substance of the Sacrament of Unction of sick is oil, by which we receive physical and psychological remedy.
- The sign of the Sacrament of Matrimony is the bride and groom who receive the prayers, so the Holy Spirit dwells upon them and unites them in body and spirit.
- The sign of the Sacrament of Priesthood is the ordained person, who accepts the prayers of the Sacrament of Priesthood and the laying of hands for a certain priestly rank, to gain the grace for starting church services – whether Sacraments or authority for various church matters and management.
Redemptive and Non-Redemptive Sacraments
There are four redemptive Sacraments out of the Seven Sacraments. They are necessary for eternal salvation, and every believer should practice them in order to gain eternal salvation. These are:
1- Baptism 2- Confirmation
3- Confession 4- Communion
The other three Sacraments are non-redemptive and unnecessary for eternal salvation.
5- Sacrament of Unction of the Sick
Given for the remedy of those who are physically or psychologically unwell only.
6- Sacrament of Matrimony
For those who want to marry for the purpose of sharing lives and bearing children. However, there are many monks and nuns, and those who live celibate lives who gain eternal life with merit.
7- Sacrament of Priesthood
Reserved only for those who are ordained as a deacon, priest or bishop. However, the majority of the Congregation has no priestly ranks, but is called for redemption and eternal life.
An Imperishable Feature
Certain Church Sacraments are performed with an imperishable feature, so must not be repeated again at any time. Sacraments which are imperishable are as follows:
Baptism: we are made children of God our Father
Chrism: we are made soldiers of our great King
Priesthood: we are made servants and priests of the great High Priest.
But the rest of the Sacraments are performed repeatedly as needed.
Written by Bishop Mettaous, Bishop and Abbot of El-Syrian Monastery
The seven Sacraments of the Church are the channels by which we receive the graces and blessings of the Holy Spirit.
The Holy Spirit has existed in the church since the day of Pentecost, when He dwelt in it according to the Lord’s promise: “I will pray to the Father, and He will give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you forever, even the Spirit of Truth when the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him, but you know Him for He dwells with you, and will be in you” (John 14:16, 17).
The Holy Spirit works in the church through the Sacraments, giving us His gifts, blessings and comfort, and teaches us and guides us to the way of truth. “But the Comforter, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all things that I said to you” (John 14:26).
The Lord Christ instituted all these Sacraments, and the Holy Bible mentions them in detail.
1. Sacrament of Baptism
Instituted by the Lord Jesus by His Baptism in the River Jordan and by His words to Nicodemus saying: “Most assuredly I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God… Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God” (John 3), and by saying to our fathers the Apostles, “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matthew 28:19).
2. Sacrament of Confirmation
Instituted by Lord Jesus when He said: “If anyone thirsts let him come to Me and drink. He who believes in Me, as the Scripture has said, out of his heart will flow rivers of living water”. But this He spoke concerning the Spirit whom those believing in Him would receive; for the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified” (John 7:37-39). About the Sacrament of Confirmation, in the Book of Acts it is mentioned: “Now when the Apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the Word of God, they sent Peter and John to them, who, when they had come down, prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit. For as yet He had fallen upon none of them. They had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit” (Acts 8:14-17).
The Holy Spirit was received by the laying of hands, but when the number of believers increased, the Apostles were unable to keep track of each individual to lay upon them their hands in order to receive the Holy Spirit. So they made the Myron out of certain oils mixed with spices; the same spices which were brought to the tomb to embalm the shrouded Christ. It was approved for the dwelling of the Holy Spirit, and allowed the priests to anoint the newly baptized by the Myron to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit, to dwell in them, in order to become temples of the Holy Spirit.
3. Sacrament of Confession
Instituted by the Lord Jesus when He said to His pure disciples: “Assuredly I say to you, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven” (Matthew: 18:18), and after Resurrection He said, “As the Father has sent me, I also send you and when He had said this, He breathed on them, and said to them “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them, if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (John 20: 21-22).
4. Sacrament of the Eucharist
Instituted by the Lord Jesus in the upper room in Zion, on the night of His passion when He took bread, blessed it and broke it, and gave it to His disciples saying, “Take eat, this is My Body. Then He took the cup, and when He had given thanks He gave it to them, and they all drank from it and He said to them “This is My Blood of the new covenant which is shed for many” (Mark 14: 22-24).
5. Sacrament of Unction of the Sick
Instituted by the Lord Jesus when He said to His disciples, “Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers” (Matthew 10:8), and, “Whatever city you enter … heal the sick who are there” (Luke 10:8). The Apostles then put the Lord’s words into practice: “They anointed with oil many who were sick and healed them” (Mark 6:13). Our teacher St. James the Apostle advised believers to practice it, by saying, “Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise him up, and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven” (James 5:14-15).
6. Sacrament of Matrimony
Instituted by the Lord Jesus who blessed the Sacrament of Matrimony by attending the wedding of Cana of Galilee, where, “He manifested His glory and His disciples believed in Him” (John 2: 1-11). Also, teacher St. Paul says, “This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the Churches” (Ephesians 5:32). This means that the physical union between a man and his wife is a sign and symbol of a greater spiritual matter, that is, of the unity of heart and soul, resembling the unity of Christ and the Church.
7. Sacrament of Priesthood
Instituted by the Lord Jesus when He chose His twelve disciples among many of His followers, and called them Apostles. The selection was accomplished after a whole night of prayer, when the Lord Jesus went out to the mountain to pray (Luke 6: 12-13), and then sent them to preach saying, “The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand” (Matthew 10:7). The Lord said to them, “I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain” (John 15:16). He gave them the authority saying, “Assuredly I say to you, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven” (Matthew 18:18). After the resurrection, the Lord, “Breathed on them and said to them: “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them. If you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (John 2:23), and to them only, He said, “Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you” (Matthew: 28:19-20). He gave the mystery of His Holy Body and Blood only to them saying, “Do this in remembrance of Me” (Luke 22:19).